Research conducted in Sri Lanka has found that Covid Rapid Antigen Test kits are effective.
The research was carried out by the Allergy Immunology and Cell Biology Unit, Department of Immunology and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Nugegoda, Sri Lanka, the Colombo Municipality Council, the Ministry of Health in Sri Lanka and the MRC Human Immunology Unit, MRC Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
SARS-CoV-2 rapid antigen (Ag) detection kits are widely used in addition to quantitative reverse transcription PCR PCR (RT-qPCR), as they are cheaper with a rapid turnaround time.
As there are many concerns regarding their sensitivity and specificity, in different settings, the researchers evaluated two WHO approved rapid Ag kits in a large cohort of Sri Lankan individuals.
Paired nasopharangeal swabs were obtained from 4786 participants for validation of the SD-Biosensor rapid Ag assay and 3325 for the Abbott rapid Ag assay, in comparison to RT-qPCR. A short questionnaire was used to record symptoms at the time of testing, and blood samples were obtained from 2721 of them for detection of SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies.
The overall sensitivity of the SD-Biosensor Ag kit was 36.5% and the Abbott Ag test was 50.76%. The Abbott Ag test showed specificity of 99.4% and the SD-Biosensor Ag test 97.5%. At Ct values < 25, the sensitivity was 71.3% to 76.6% for the SD-Biosensor Ag test and 77.3% to 88.9% for the Abbott Ag test. The Ct values for all genes (RdRP, S, E and N) tested with all RT-qPCR kits were significantly lower for the positive results of the Abbott Ag test compared to the SD-Biosensor test. 209 (48.04%) individuals who had antibodies gave a positive RT-qPCR result, and antibody positivity rates were higher at Ct values > 30 (46.1 to 82.9%). 32.1% of those who gave a positive result with the SD-Biosensor Ag test and 26.3% of those who gave positive results with the Abbott Ag test had SARS-CoV-2 antibodies at the time of detection.
The researchers said that both rapid antigen tests appeared to be highly sensitive in detecting individuals at lower Ct values, in a community setting in Sri Lanka, but it will be important to further establish the relationship to infectivity. (Colombo Gazette)